More from Nav.no about the National Insurance Scheme:

National Insurance Coverage

What entitlements you can claim under the National Insurance Act depends on what kind of membership you have, or whether you are covered by a social security agreement.

Membership and coverage
The general rule is that you are covered under the National Insurance Act if you are a compulsory member of the National Insurance Scheme. You should be aware that some entitlements require that you have been a member of the National Insurance Scheme for a certain time. These requirements are specified for each benefit.

If you are covered by a social security agreement with another country, it may compensate for an insufficient period of residence in Norway.
If you, as an employee or as a resident in Norway, are not a member of the National Insurance Scheme, you can apply for voluntary membership. You can apply for voluntary membership in connection with:
– Residence in Norway
– Residence outside Norway

What sort of national insurance coverage do you get?
With voluntary membership, you can only be a member for sections of national insurance. You decide yourself what national insurance coverage you will apply for and specify the coverage you want on the application form.

As a general rule, pensioners can only be members of the health section.
Coverage under the health section includes health service benefits and lump sum grants for births and adoptions. Application for sickness benefit and parental benefit entitlements can be linked to the health section.

Coverage under the pension section includes old-age pensions, disability pensions, benefits for surviving spouse, orphan’s pensions, unemployment benefits, single mother or father benefits, funeral grants, basic and auxiliary benefits, medical rehabilitation and occupational rehabilitation, and grants to former family carers.

National Insurance Contributions

The Norwegian Tax Administration Authorities only set and assess the national insurance contributions for persons who are resident in Norway for tax purposes.

When must I pay national insurance contribution to NAV and not the Norwegian Tax Administration?
Answer: If you do not pay taxes to Norway and you are a member of the National Insurance Scheme, NAV will collect the national insurance contributions. If you are a voluntary member of the National Insurance Scheme, NAV will also collect the contributions.

If you pay taxes to Norway, you must ensure that the Tax Assessment Office does not deduct national insurance contributions from you as if you were a compulsory member. In such instances, the Tax Assessment Office will have a copy of the decision to cease compulsory membership and so discontinue deducting contributions from you as if you were a compulsory member of the Norwegian National Insurance Scheme.

I shall be staying abroad for more than a year and have applied for, and been granted voluntary membership. What effect does this have on the national insurance contributions?
Answer: You must pay the contributions for voluntary membership to NAV National Office for Social Insurance Abroad. When you are no longer a compulsory member, you must not have contributions deducted by the Tax Assessment Office as a compulsory member of the National Insurance Scheme.

I have voluntary membership. Does the fact that the employer pays no employer’s contributions on my income affect what I pay in national insurance contributions?
Answer: If the employer does not pay employer’s contributions, you have to pay a higher rate of national insurance contributions.

I reside in Norway and work in Sweden. Must I pay national insurance contributions in Norway?
Answer: No, if you only work in Sweden you are a member of the Swedish national insurance scheme and must pay contributions to Sweden. You must inform your NAV Local Services Office in Norway so that it can notify the Tax Assessment Office that you are no longer a member of the (Norwegian) National Insurance Scheme.

I will be working in the USA as an employee posted there from Norway. How does this affect national insurance contributions?
Answer: When you are posted from Norway, you retain your compulsory membership of the National Insurance Scheme. This means that you must pay the same rate of contributions as if you were an employee in Norway. If you will not be paying tax to Norway while residing in the USA, NAV National Office for Social Insurance Abroad will collect both the national insurance contributions and the employer’s contributions.

Membership of the National Insurance Scheme

1. Before going abroad, you should check whether your stay will affect your entitlements under the National Insurance Act
This applies particularly if you are taking a job in another country, residing abroad for more than one year, or whether you will be residing abroad for 6 months or more a year, for two or more consecutive years.

2. In order to be entitled to benefits from Norway, you must be a member of the National Insurance Scheme
If you are resident in Norway, you are a compulsory member of the National Insurance Scheme, but there are some exceptions. Voluntary membership also gives entitlement to benefits, depending on what coverage your voluntary membership provides. You can read more about compulsory membership under related content – questions and answers about membership.

3. When you come to work in Norway, you must contact the NAV Local Services Office in the municipality where you will be working
The general rule is that you must be a member of the social insurance scheme of the country in which you are working, but there are exceptions to this rule.

4. When you move to another EEA-country, your membership of the National Insurance Scheme ceases
Get in touch with your NAV Local Services Office, so that they can decide on the termination of your membership. NAV will send a copy of the decision to the Norwegian Tax Administration so that national insurance contributions are not deducted.

5. When you move to a country outside the EEA, your membership of the National Insurance Scheme ceases
Get in touch with your NAV Local Services Office, so that they can decide on the termination of your membership. NAV will send a copy of the decision to the Norwegian Tax Administration so that national insurance contributions are not deducted.

6. Even if you are not entitled to compulsory membership, you may have the right to voluntary membership
You can read more about the difference between compulsory and voluntary membership under questions and answers about membership.

7. Pensioners and moving to another EEA-country
You will not retain your Norwegian membership when you report that you are moving to another EEA-country. Get in touch with NAV Health Service Administration to obtain information about how your move will affect your health entitlements.

8. Employees in Norway with family members residing in another EEA-country
Family members who are resident in another EEA-country are not members of the National Insurance Scheme in Norway. If your spouse is a member as an employee in Norway, your spouse’s membership gives you some entitlements as a family member. For information, get in touch with the NAV Local Services Office in the municipality where the employed person is working.

9. When you take up work in another EEA-country, your membership of the National Insurance Scheme ceases
There are exceptions to this general rule. For information, get in touch with NAV National Office for Social Insurance Abroad.

10. When you take up work in a country outside the EEA, your membership of the National Insurance Scheme ceases
There are exceptions to this general rule. For information, get in touch with NAV National Office for Social Insurance Abroad.

11. Social security agreements between countries can affect your membership when you come to Norway and when you leave Norway
The EEA-Agreement is a social security agreement, but Norway has social security agreements with countries outside Europe as well. You can read more about social security agreements under Membership – Social Insurance Agreements.

Correct at time of publishing.

http://www.nav.no/English/Membership+in+The+National+Insurance+Scheme 

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