Innledning Velkommen til norskleksjon 116! In this lesson were are learning the principles of gender nouns.  This will be a pillar lesson for you - one that you will likely refer back to often.  (It might be a good idea to reference this lesson or print it out for quick reviews.)  Most of the elements you will need to memorise, especially meanings, until you get the hang of using the principles.  I find when you are first learning these principles it is a lot easier to practise genders with writing exercises.  Trying to do it with speech doesn't give you enough mental time to work things out. (It's like solving complex maths equations out loud instead of writing them out.)  I have added in a lot of Norwegian grammar terms too.  This will be very useful to you if you want to start learning Norwegian from a book.  And the lesson is a good review over grammar in general - especially good for those who need to brush up on their English grammar also ;D Hope you enjoy the lesson.

Norwegian Lesson 116

abc-line Instruction: We've had the 'instructions' and commands up for a while now.  Hopefully you have learnt them so let's see how you go without them ;D abc-line-1 Gloser gloser16 abc-line-1 Lydøvelse Listen to the audio (50-10000-dictat1) and repeat after each sound.

Diktat - o Listen to the audio and take dictation.

Compare with the answers at the end of the post.  (If you have any incorrect...) listen to the audio and read over the answers.  Then retake the dictation. Uttale - j Follow the audio and repeat each sound: j


It seems like 'j' and 'y' are the 'vowels' English doesn't have. (Actually, 'y' is a vowel in Norwegian!)  These sounds often help in pronouncing words - especially when they don't have an English 'vowel' in them.  Such as 'YDMYK' (humble) Listen for the long and short vowel sounds with each word.  This is a pronunciation rule that covers all of the Norwegian language. Spørsmål Answer the questions in the audio.  The questions are spoken slowly so you have a chance to listen to the sound of each word.  Pause in between each question so you can say the answer.

abc-line-1 116.1 Grammatikk Nouns in Norwegian are called 'substantiv'.  Substantiv change depending on the context of the sentence: - Some sentences talk about a single unspecific thing: Entall:ubestemt - an apple. - Some sentences talk about a single specific thing: Entall:bestemt - the apple. - Some sentences talk about many unspecific things: Flertall:ubestemt - apples. - And, some sentences talk about many specific things: Flertall:bestemt - the apples. In a table it would look like this: ental-flertall-example Entall: ubestemt and bestemt forms In a previous lesson (106.1) we briefly touched on the gender of nouns.  We talked about '-en', '-ei' and '-et' being the masculine, feminine and neutral forms of 'the'.  Now we are going to learn the full use of these three little words. 'en', 'ei' and 'et' by themselves mean 'a' (or an) when they are in front of a noun, such as: 'et eple' (an apple) When they are joined to the back of a noun it is the same as adding 'the' in front of the word, such as: 'eplet' (the apple) 'eple' is actually a neutral noun (intetkjønn) so that is why we use 'et' because 'et' is the neutral 'a/an/the'.  Of course, when the noun is masculine (hannkjønn) or feminine (hunnkjønn) we must use 'en' or 'ei' instead: Table of gender with nouns in Entall: ubestemt form: entall-ubestemt-example1 Table of gender with nouns in Entall: bestemt form: entall-bestemt-example Note: Most words ending with 'e' are feminine.  (There are always exceptions, of course.)  When feminine nouns are in their Entall: bestemt form then the 'e' at the end changes to an 'a'. (A feminine word would look mighty silly if it followed the pattern of the others: 'pæreei'!)  So, Norwegian adjusts to make things 'seem normal'.  For example: Table of feminine gender with nouns in Entall: bestemt form: hunnkjonn-example Fyll a. Write in the correct fruit into the sentences below. en appelsin - en aprikos - ei drue - et jordbær - en sitron - en ananas - en vannmelon - et blåbær - ei plumme Entall: ubestemt form: En ________ er oransje. Ei ________ er grønn eller fiolett. Et ________ er rødt. En ________ er gul. En ________ er rød og grønn. En ________ er oransje. Et ________ er blått. En _________ er gul. Ei ________ er rød eller fiolett. Entall: bestemt form: ________ er grønn eller fiolett. ________ er blått. ________ er rød og grønn. ________ er rød eller fiolett. ________ er oransje. ________ er rødt. ________ er gul. ________ er oransje. ________ er gul. Fyll b. Fill in the right words in the spaces: Eple: Jeg har ___ eple. Jeg spiser _____. Vil du ha et _____? _____ er rødt. Jeg bringer ___ eple til skolen hver dag. Drue: Jeg har ei _____. Jeg spiser _____. Vil du ha ___ drue? _____ er grønn. Jeg bringer ei _____ til skolen hver dag. Banan: Jeg har ___ banan. Jeg spiser _____. Vil du ha ___ banan? _____ er grønn. Jeg bringer   _____ til skolen hver dag. abc-line-1 116.2
Fortelling - Til Frokost Til frokost har jeg frokostblanding med frisk frukt først.  Så spiser jeg to brødskiver med smør og jordbærsyltetøy.  Jeg har appelsinjuice også.  Hans liker skinke på brødskiver med agurk og majones.  Han drikker kaffe men har også eplejuice.  Marit liker å spise bolle med ost til frokost.  Men hun spiser frukt også.  Om helgen lager jeg pannekaker med syltetøy og krem for familien.  Vi har varm sjokolade om vinteren også.
Finn a. Find all the nouns in the fortelling - Til Frokost Grammartik - Flertall: ubestemt and bestemt forms Flertall: ubestemt 'Flertall: ubestemt', or unspecific plural nouns are used in similar grammar to English.  In English we use 's', as in 'apples'.  Norwegian uses 'er' as in 'elper'.  Of course, there are some exceptions as in English such as 'fish', 'moose', 'water' or 'bacon'.  However, most words follow this grammar pattern: flertell-ubestemt-example Note: if a word already ends with an 'e' then 'r' is just added.  If the word doesn't end with an 'e' then 'er' is added.  The goal is to get an 'ehr' sound at the end of unspecific plural words. Si b. Read and answer the the following: en appelsin - to _______ en aprikos - to ______ ei drue - to ______ en sitron - to ______ en ananas - to ______ en vannmelon - to ______ ei plumme - to ______ Note: 'blåbær' and 'jordbær' are already plurals like 'fish' in English. Flertall: bestemt 'Flertall: bestemt', or specific plural nouns end with '-ene' in Norwegian, such as: eplene (the apples).  Again, if the noun already ends with an 'e' then 'ne' is just added to make things easier. flertall-bestemt-example Having '-ene' at the end of words sometimes makes you feel you have a stutter.  Like rolling 'r's, it can be hard to stop - sometimes I accidentally keep going with '-enene'. Because 'et', 'en', 'a', 'er' and '-ene' are at the end of the word it is not generally pronounced clearly.  I always have a hard time knowing if the word is singular or plural.  I like to go over my dictations to practise listening.  The dictations that we have already done so far have lots of words ending in 'r' - it would be good for you to go over these dictations so you can get used to hearing for them too. So... putting all the forms together you have a table that looks like this: kjonn-entall-flertall-example Skriv c. Write in the Flertall: bestemt form of fruit in the spaces below. en appelsin - en aprikos - ei drue - et jordbær - en sitron - en ananas - en vannmelon - et blåbær - ei plumme ________ er oransje. ________ er grønn eller fiolett. ________ er rødt. ________ er gul. ________ er rød og grønn. ________ er oransje. ________ er blått. _________ er gul. ________ er rød eller fiolett. Note: The neutral gender of a noun effects the gender of the adjective (colours in the exercises above) in the sentence.  We will be working with this in the lessons to come. Si d. Read over the sentences above out loud.  Concentrate on the sounds you are making.  The '-ene' is basically a whole syllable at the end of the word. It has a very, very little emphasis on the first 'eh' sound which propels you into the rest on the syllable. Fyll e. Fill in the blanks below using the right forms. Eple: Jeg har ________. (Flertall:bestemt) Jeg liker ________. (Entall: ubestemt) Jeg spiser _____. (Flertall: ubestemt) Vil du ha _____? (Flertall: ubestemt) _____ er rødt. (Flertall: ubestemt) Jeg bringer ___ ______ til skolen hver dag. (Entall: bestemt) Drue: Jeg har  ___ _____. (Entall: ubestemt) Jeg spiser _____. (Flertall: ubestemt) Vil du ha ______? (Flertall:bestemt) _____ er grønn. (Flertall:bestemt) Jeg bringer ___   _____ til skolen hver dag. (Entall: ubestemt) Banan: Jeg har ________.  (Flertall: ubestemt) Jeg spiser _____. (Flertall: bestemt) Vil du ha _______? (Flertall: bestemt) _____ er grønn. (Flertall: bestemt) Jeg bringer _______ til skolen hver dag. (Flertall: ubestemt) abc-line Svar Diktat - o-ord: o-ord 

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