Introduction

Velkommen til Norwegian Lesson 103! One of the things that made it hard for me to learn Norwegian was the fact that I didn’t know about language structure and grammar of English!  I’m sure I was taught it sometime during my schooling but for the life of me, I couldn’t remember anything.  So while I was learning Norwegian I also had to re-learn English grammar so I could understand what the terms and functions were even in the basic sentence.  You will find that I will be going through the basics of grammar throughout these lessons (mainly to help myself learn and remember), but I will also be gradually introducing the proper grammar words in Norwegian.

There are so many different ways to structure sentences, but we will be working with the most basic statement-sentences and question-sentences.  Norwegian has quite a few personal pronouns in the language and it is very helpful to know all these off by heart. You will also notice the progression of exercises – I try to revise a little while also pressing forward with new words and grammar.

Suggested memorising tool:
Again, I find that the only way you learn vocab in the beginning is by memorising.  Flash cards can help.  You could print out and cut up your personal glossary so you can pull words out of a hat.  You can even set tasks for yourself like making up a sentence with each word you pull out.

Norwegian Lesson 103

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Instruction:
The below are the Norwegian commands from Norwegian Lessons 101 and 102 to signify active learning tasks.

Les (Read) – Skriv (Write) – Si (Say) – Lytt (Listen) – Øv (Practise) – Spørsmål (Questions) – Fortelling (Story) – Finn (Find) – Øvelse (Exercise)
Lydøvelse (Sound Practise) – Grammatikk (Grammar) – Uttale (Pronunciation)

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Gloser

gloser3

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Lydøvelse
Practise the Alphabet with the audio:

Uttale – i & u
Follow the audio and repeat each sound:

iu2

iuord

Notice that the words with one vowel followed by one consonant has a long vowel sound, and the words with one vowel followed by two consonants have a short vowel sound.  Play the audio again and follow along.  Listen for the long and short vowel sounds with each word.  This is a pronounciation rule that covers all of the Norwegian langauge.

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103.1

Norsk Dialog
Nina:  Hallo!
John & Karen: Hei!
Nina:  Jeg heter Nina.  Hva heter dere?
John:  Jeg er John.
Karen:  Jeg heter Karen.
Nina:  Hvor kommer dere fra?
John:  Vi kommer fra London.
Karen:  Hvor kommer du fra?
Nina:  Jeg kommer fra Oslo, men jeg bor i Trondheim.

Les
a. Read the dialogue above.  Translate into English.

Spørsmål
b. Answer the questions about the sentence ‘men jeg bor i Trondheim’.
What does it mean?
What is the pronoun in this sentence?
What is the verb in this sentence?

Grammatikk – Konjunksjoner
‘Jeg kommer fra Oslo’ and ‘Jeg bor i Trondheim’ are two basic sentences.  They are put together by a conjunction (konjunksjon) – better know as a ‘joining word’ – ‘men’ (but).  Notice how each sentence still follows the statement sentence structure: pronoun/noun – verb. These sentences can also be swapped with ‘men’ in the joining position and still make perfect sense.

Another joining word is ‘og’ (and), for example: ‘Jeg heter John og jeg kommer fra London’.  ‘Og’ is also used to create a ‘list’ sentence such as  ‘John og Karen kommer fra London’ or ‘Nina bor i Trondheim og Narvik’.

Skriv
c. Write the following sentences in Norwegian:

I come from London but I live in Norway.
I’m called Jack and I live in Tromsø.
I come from Alta but Jane lives in Bodø.
I live in Oslo and Peggy lives in Canada.

Si
e. Ask questions to the answers above, for example: ‘Hva heter dere og hvor kommer dere fra?

Grammatikk – ‘og’
When using ‘og’ to join two sentences you do not need to repeat the personal pronoun.  For example: Jeg heter John og jeg kommer fra London.  The second ‘jeg’ can be used but is not necessary.
You are welcome to leave it out ;D

Uttale – Og
This word has two distinct pronunciations in dialect Norwegian – one with the ‘g’ being pronounced (usually in the west coast and rural east of Norway).   In the other the ‘g’ is silent so you get an ‘o’ (as in orange) sound (usually in Oslo, South and North of Norway).  In bokmål the second pronunciation is used.

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103.2

Grammatikk – pronomen i setninger
All personal pronouns (and nouns) can be used at the beginning of basic statement sentences (
utsagnssetning):

Jeg heter Nina.
Vi kommer fra London.
(Frank kommer fra Oslo.)

Pronouns in question-sentences (spørreord) always come after the verb:

Hva heter dere?
Hvor kommer du fra?

When you speak about yourself ‘jeg’ is the personal pronoun used.

Jeg heter Karen.
Jeg er John.

When you are addressing one person ‘du’ is used:

Hvor kommer du fra?
Du kommer fra Norge.

When you are speaking about yourself together with other people ‘vi’ is the personal pronoun used.

Vi kommer fra London.

When you are speaking to two or more people ‘dere’ is the personal pronoun used.

Hva heter dere?
Hvor kommer dere fra?

Note: ‘dere’ directly means ‘you’ but it is a plural word used like: ‘yous’, ‘you two’ or ‘you guys’.

When you are speaking about two or more people ‘de’ is the personal pronoun used.

Hva heter de?
Hvor kommer de fra?

Uttale – De
It would be normal to presume that ‘de’ is pronounced as it is spelt such as ‘deh’, but this in not the case.  (Remember from last lesson that ‘det’ is pronounced ‘deh’.)  De is pronounced as the English capital letter ‘dee’.  It will take a bit of getting used to (when ever I read ‘de’ I always forget and pronounce it ‘deh’) – there is not logic in it, no other word does that – it’s just something you need to memorise.

Skriv
a. Write the following sentences in Norwegian:
How are you two?
How is Ted and Bill.
What are they called?
We come from Austria but we live in Norway.
Is John from Alta or Oslo?
I live in Tromsø but I come from Danmark.
We are fine.
Where are they from?
Where do you come from?
Jill and Jane come from London.
What are your names?
Alex and Sandra are good.
Where do they live?

Si
b. Make up answers in Norwegian to these questions:

Hva heter dere?
Hvor bor du?
Hvordan går det?
Hva heter de?
Hva heter du og or hvor kommer du fra?
Hvor kommer dere fra?
Hvor kommer de fra?
Hvor bor dere?

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103.3

Fortelling
Nina snakker med John og Karen.
Han kommer fra London.
Hun kommer fra London også.
De snakker med Nina.
Nina kommer fra Oslo, men hun bor i Trondheim.

Grammatikk – Han, Hun and De
Like all other pronouns, ‘han, hun and de’ are used in the of basic statement sentences (utsagnssetning), and also come after the verb in a question-word (spørreord).

Skriv
a. Fill in the blanks using personal pronouns:

– John og Karen snakker med Nina.  _____ kommer fra London.

– Nina bor i Trondheim og _____ kommer fra Oslo.

– John kommer fra London.  _____ snakker med Nina.

– Hvor kommer ______ fra?  John og Karen kommer fra London.

– Nina snakker med Karen.  _____ bor i Trondheim.

– John og Karen kommer fra London.  Hvem snakker _____ med?

Uttale – Med og ET
As mentioned earlier, most Norwegian words are said how they are spelt.  A lot of words have a certain emphasis, usually the first syllable in a word (similar to English).  However there are certain words that have a ‘de-emphasis’.  ‘med’ is one of these words.  The ‘d’ at the end of ‘med’ is silent but is used to elongate the ‘eh’ sound.  This same principle applies to some words that end in ‘et’ also such as ‘det’, ‘toget’ and ‘flyet’ (it, train and the airplane).

Øvelse
b. See how many sentences you can make about Nina in the story above using all the personal pronouns in this lesson.
(Also use konjunksjoner, spørreord and utsagnssetning.)

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